News Digest 31-Oct-2022

Share it now

First-ever inflatable wing sail technology is being mounted on a merchant ship

30 Oct 2022
A maritime company has declared a “milestone” by installing the first automated, retractable, inflatable wing sail technology on a merchant ship.

The inflated, foldable and automated wing uses wind propulsion as an hybrid solution to reduce fuel consumption. Image Source: Interesting Engineering

The container ship MN Pélican owned by Compagnie Maritime Nantaise, had the 100 sqm wing prototype installed, according to Michelin, the French industrial equipment supplier.

The project WISAMO (Wing Sail and Mobility) is being installed on the merchant ship, which was built in 1999, and is currently docked in Spain’s El Astillero Port.

The company claims that the prototype can be mounted on both commercial and recreational vessels. It is believed that by using wind energy, the technology may reduce fuel use by up to 20 percent per ship.

The wing sail system can be added during the design phase of the ship, as original equipment, or retrofitted on an already-in-service ship. It is suitable for ro-ro vessels, bulk carriers, LNG carriers, and tankers. It retracts for simple passage under bridges and into ports, according to the company. Reference

Philippines non-compliance with maritime standards risks job

30 Oct 2022
The hiring of new Filipino seafarers in European Union (EU) member-states and the jobs of around 50,000 currently deployed in the region will be at risk if the Committee on Safe Seas arrives at a negative decision on the Philippines’ certification in November.

Image Source:

Foreign Affairs Undersecretary Eduardo de Vega shared this to lawmakers on Thursday, October 27, during a House committee hearing on the country’s compliance with Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping (STCW) Requirements.

In its latest audit in 2020, the European Maritime Safety Administration (EMSA) found 13 shortcomings and 23 grievances in relation to the Philippines, including lack of training equipment and inconsistencies in teaching and assessment.

In February, the National Maritime Polytechnic had already warned that Filipino seafarers posted in European flag-registered ocean-going vessels were at risk of losing their jobs if the Philippines did not comply with the STCW. According to Pampolina, 2022 is the final year earmarked by EMSA for compliance.

The Philippines faced a similar risk in 2013, when, according to Maritime Industry Administration (MARINA) data, the number of inspection findings rose to 116 from 2012’s 16. During the initial audit in 2006, EMSA had 158 findings.

Of the concerns raised by EMSA, the maritime studies curricula and training standards are the most prevalent.

Kabayan Representative Ron Salo, chair of the House committee on overseas workers affairs, also pressed on MARINA’s non-compliance. He asked why the curricula are still not up to par with international standards, despite issues being raised as early as 2006. He also urged the agency to align with CHED on the implementation of changes made to maritime programs. Reference

World’s first partially wind-powered cargo ship successfully sailed

29 Oct 2022
The world’s first partly wind-powered bulk carrier ship sailed to the Port of Newcastle on its maiden voyage this week.

Shofu Maru with the Wind Challenger sailing in the sea. Image Source: Intresting Engineering

The Japanese shipping company Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL), which delivered the 100, 422 dwt (dead-weight tonnage) bulker on October 7, 2022, sailed to Newcastle on Monday, reported Offshore Energy.

“The world’s first bulk carrier to be partially powered by wind, the Shofu Maru, sailed into #Newcastle this morning on its maiden voyage,” the Port of Newcastle authorities wrote on Twitter.

It is the first coal carrier to be powered by the hard sail wind power propulsion technology – this part has been named ‘Wind Challenger.’

The vessel is claimed to be the “first of its kind” and signals the return of wind power as a viable source of energy, ushering in a new era in modern transport.

The Shofu Maru has a telescopic sail made of fiberglass that can stretch to a height of 55 meters and can transport 80,000 tonnes of coal.

According to preliminary tests, the company predicted it would consume 5 percent less fuel traveling between Australia and Japan. Reference

Women in maritime have shown leadership during the pandemic crisis

29 Oct 2022
WISTA International (Women’s International Shipping and Trading Association) and the researchers from the Espirito Santo Federal University in Brazil (UFES) ran a survey focused on the impact of the COVID pandemic on women in maritime based on work, family and community life of WISTA members. According to the findings, 61.51% of the participants feel that women showed leadership during the pandemic crisis at work or in their communities. A further key finding was that for the majority of the group (54.81%), domestic activities increased after the start of the pandemic.

Image Source:

The survey, conducted by Priscilla de Oliveira Martins and Alexandro De Andrade from the UFES, was completed by 239 participants from around the world, including Europe (128), North America (43), South America (25), Asia (22), Central America (9), Oceania (9) and Africa (3). The majority of respondents are from the USA (43), followed by Greece (33), Norway (25), France (19), Netherlands (18), Sweden (11), Australia (9) and others (81).

Psychosocial indicators analysis considered by researchers in the survey were: work-family conflict, life satisfaction, work engagement, psychological capital and community engagement.

The research showed that most of the respondents, 61.51%, feel that women exhibited leadership at work or in their communities during the pandemic crisis. Also, for the majority of participants (54.81%) in the group, domestic activities increased after the start of the COVID pandemic, with a family member or a part-time person hired to do the household activities. On the other hand, 42.68% said they had experienced no change and only 2.51% felt that domestic activities had decreased.

Participants ranged from 23 to 68 years old, with an average age being 44. The race or ethnic groups represented were: White (171), Latino (27), Asian (19), Black (7), African (2), Mixed (6), Greek (1), Indian (2), Turkish (1). Years worked in the maritime range between 1 to 50 years, with an average of 18 years of experience in the industry.

Working remotely with the same salary but more hours

Regarding work during the pandemic period, most survey respondents migrated to remote work with the same salary and saw no increase in responsibility. However, there was an increase in the number of working hours. Most respondents have returned to face-to-face work, but a considerable number are in hybrid work or home office. Reference

International Chamber of Shipping proposes global CO2 reduction plan

28 Oct 2022
The International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), which represents 80% of the world’s merchant fleet, has announced proposals to accelerate the maritime sector’s transition to net zero by financially rewarding ships and energy producers that invest in low/net zero emission fuels.

Image Source:

In a paper to shipping’s UN regulator, the International Maritime Organization (IMO),

ICS proposes a ‘fund and reward’ system to catalyse the adoption of alternative fuels, which currently cost at least two or three times more than conventional marine fuel.

The ICS fund and reward (F&R) proposal combines elements of various recent GHG reduction proposals from a number of governments, plus a flat rate contribution system previously proposed by ICS and INTERCARGO, and ideas recently put forward for a global IMO measure by the EU 27.

The reward rate would be calculated based on CO2 emissions prevented and funded via a mandatory flat rate contribution from ships per tonne of CO2 emitted. The fund would reward ships according to annual reporting of the CO2 emissions prevented by the use of “eligible alternative fuels”. 

The ICS proposal aims to ensure that at least 5% of the energy used by the world fleet in 2030 is produced from alternative fuels. Reference

ABS Opens Industry-Leading LNG Training Center In Doha

28 Oct 2022
ABS, the leading classification organization in Qatar, announced it will open a global liquified natural gas (LNG) training center in Doha, Qatar, as part of its support of Qatar’s National Vision 2030 and the Tawteen Program, which focuses on education and quality employment for Qatari nationals.

Image Source: Marine Insight

In collaboration with local corporations, the industry-leading training center will focus on LNG production and operations, ensuring that seafarers are skilled to work with this dynamic fuel and the most modern fleet of vessels.

ABS trainers are experienced with both theoretical and practical knowledge of LNG and LNG carriers. The ABS training center will offer virtual classes during the fourth quarter of 2022 and open its facility for in-person training in the first quarter of 2023.

Alongside the launch, ABS hosted its annual Qatar National Committee Meeting where maritime industry leaders came together to discuss the latest advances in sustainability and digital classification, regulatory developments and market trends. Reference

New design of marine-deployed nuclear power station unveiled

28 Oct 2022
American small modular reactor provider NuScale Power (NuScale) and Canadian firm Prodigy Clean Energy (Prodigy) have revealed a new conceptual design for a transportable and marine-based small modular reactor (SMR) power-generating facility.

Credit: NuScale Power. Image Source: Offshore Energy

The updated concept will be used for engagements with utilities, regulators, and shipyard manufacturers.

Compared to terrestrial deployments, Prodigy’s technologies can help with manufacturing and outfitting the entire marine facility in a shipyard.

After transport to the deployment location, the marine facility would be fixed in place within a protected harbor and connected to shoreside transmission and process heat systems.

Nuclear fuel would be loaded in the NPMs as the last step of the commissioning process before beginning power generation. Operations, security, and fuel handling protocols are equivalent to those used for a traditional nuclear power plant under existing nuclear regulations.

Further advantages include reduced capital expenditure, accelerated project schedule, minimized site preparation, and reduced environmental impact, according to the company.

Carbon-free power generated by these facilities would support at-scale electrification, as well as the production of zero-carbon fuels, such as hydrogen and ammonia, to decarbonize the transport and shipping sectors. Reference

India to export green energy to Singapore from 2025

27 Oct 2022
India will for the first-time export green energy from 2025, with the first shipments going to a Singapore power plant under an MoU signed by an India-based dispatchable renewables company and Singapore’s energy business on Tuesday.

Image Source:

The MoU to explore opportunities in green hydrogen potential in India will see Greenko group and Singapore’s Keppel Infrastructure working towards a 250,000 tonne per annum contract to be supplied to Keppel’s new 600Mw power plant in Singapore.

Further, the contract for the export of green ammonia would also expand to cover bunker fuel through the Keppel network in Singapore’s network of bunker fuel supplies to ships, said Mahesh Kolli, President and Joint Managing Director of Greenko Group.

Likewise, Greenko’s wide range of investments includes USD 5 billion in the storage of carbon-free green hydrogen energy across India, said Kolli.

Elaborating, Kolli said Greenko would participate in green hydrogen exports from 2025-26 onwards, estimating global demand of 50 million tonnes a year globally, including 15 million tonnes replacing bunkers fuels in ships.

The green ammonia will fuel newly built ships, including a fleet ordered by the international shipping group Maersk. Reference

Waterways And Lakes Are Evaporating Worldwide

27 Oct 2022
The world’s rivers are evaporating and this could be devastating for our food supply, our cities, and our transportation. Inland barges are ten times more efficient than trucks and dams are the world’s biggest source of clean electricity, but they rely on rivers for their water. If the rivers dry up, the climate could be in big trouble.

Image Source: gCaptain

It’s a cruel irony that’s forcing utilities to reconsider the traditional role of hydropower as a reliable and instant source of green energy. Dams are the world’s largest source of clean energy, yet extreme weather is making them less effective in the battle against climate change.

The problem is there are few renewable alternatives as flexible or widespread. Globally, hydropower generates more electricity than nuclear and more power than wind and solar combined. In countries like Norway and Brazil, dams generate more than half of total electricity. 

The worst drought in 1,200 years this year in the US West means parched reservoirs can only churn out half of the power they normally supply to California, increasing the risk of rolling blackouts across the state.

China’s Three Gorges Dam is an awe-inspiring sight, a vast barrier across the Yangtze River that contains enough concrete to fill seven Wembley Stadiums and more steel than eight Empire State Buildings. Its turbines could singlehandedly power the Philippines. But this summer, the world’s largest power plant was eerily quiet.

In Europe, dried-up rivers reduced September hydro generation to the lowest since at least 2015, according to climate think tank Ember.

In Brazil, which typically relies on hydro for more than 60% of its electricity, a drought last year brought the country to the verge of power rationing and forced it to rely on increased imports from neighbors Uruguay and Argentina, or to buy expensive fossil fuels to make up the deficit.

Concern about the reliability of dams as the planet warms is compounding growing resistance to new hydropower projects in many countries. Reference

Consortia Block Exemption Regulation detrimental to seafarers

27 Oct 2022
The European Transport Workers’ Federation is demanding an end to a loophole in EU competition law that benefits shipowners at the expense of maritime workers.

Image Source: Facebook

As Berardina Tommasi, ETF policy officer for dockers, explained the Consortia Block Exemption Regulation (CBER) is “detrimental to seafarers because it allows employers to team up and set their procedures as a group. Companies do not therefore need to compete to attract workers on more favourable terms and conditions than their rivals.”

More specifically, Ms. Tommasi notes that “the lethal mix of this exemption and maritime subsidies allows the consortia to act as if they were the only players in the maritime industry and use these advantages as leverage to massively increase their profits.”

Under this aspect, she highlights that the role of the European Commission in the EU should be to guarantee a level playing field, “but the CBER has turned out to be a disproportionate advantage that has caused harm to the workers and the principle of fair competition in the sector.”

On the other hand, the Asian Shipowners’ Association (ASA) emphasized its long-standing policy that competition law exemptions for consortia like the CBER are indispensable for the healthy development of the liner shipping industry and the maintenance of reliable liner services to the entire global trading community. Reference

New Medical App Launched To Save Seafarer Lives

27 Oct 2022
Gard and the Norwegian Centre for Maritime and Diving Medicine have launched an innovative digital medical guide to improve medical treatment onboard and potentially save seafarers’ lives.

Representation Image. Image Source: Marine Insight

The Mariners Medico Guide is a unique app, designed and tailored for seafarers. Developed in collaboration with the Norwegian Centre for Maritime and Diving Medicine, it provides step-by-step guidance for treating crew onboard. Fully downloadable, it can be used mid-ocean and in remote parts of a ship – even without a signal.

The strain and pressures experienced by seafarers have increased over the last few years. Gard alone saw the number of claims related to crew illness or death increasing by almost 75 per cent from 2018 to 2021. In 2020, the year the Covid pandemic broke out, the number of cases classified as mental disorder claims increased by 34 per cent. Sadly, the number of deaths and suicides has also increased.

The Mariners Medico Guide differs from other ship medical guides in several ways. As it is digital, it can be quickly and easily updated. Moreover, it covers both physical and mental health issues, using a symptom-based approach. Designed and written by doctors specialised in maritime medicine, guidance is set out in simple steps and language, for users with limited medical experience and reduced accessibility to medications and medical equipment.

The MMG is a Flag State approved by the Norwegian Maritime Authority as its national equivalent to the 2007 WHO International Medical Guide for Ships. Knut Arild Hareide, Director General of Shipping and Navigation at the Norwegian Maritime Authority said the App was a much-welcomed innovation. Reference

World’s largest LNG-fuelled cruise ship delivered

26 Oct 2022
The Cruise Division of MSC Group and French shipbuilding company Chantiers de l’Atlantique have announced the delivery of the world’s largest LNG-powered cruise ship and one of the first to incorporate fuel cell technology.

Credit: MSC Cruises. Image Source: Offshore Energy

As informed, the delivery ceremony of MSC World Europa took place in Saint-Nazaire on 24 October. The ship measures 580.3 meters in length and is able to accommodate 6,762 passengers with a crew of 2,138.

The vessel incorporates the latest environmentally friendly characteristics, including a dual-fuel power plant for LNG.

Compared to standard marine fuels, LNG nearly eliminates air pollutant emissions like sulphur oxides and fine particles, greatly reduces nitrogen oxides, and achieves a CO2 reduction of up to 25%, according to the companies.

Additionally, it is the world’s first contemporary cruise ship to feature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology powered by liquefied natural gas. The ship is outfitted with a 150-kilowatt SOFC demonstrator that will use LNG to produce electricity and heat by means of an electrochemical reaction.

The vessel is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system that is expected to reduce NOx emissions by 90% when LNG is not available and the ship must run on marine gas oil.

MSC World Europa also incorporates a wide range of equipment to optimize energy use throughout the ship. These include smart ventilation and advanced air conditioning systems, with automated energy recovery loops, allowing effective distribution of heat and cold across the ship.

It will also be fitted with enhanced automatic data collection systems for remote energy monitoring and advanced analysis, allowing real-time shoreside support to optimize operational efficiency onboard. Reference

Seafarers face human rights vacuum at sea, says charity

26 Oct 2022
The complex nature of ship operations is creating a human rights vacuum at sea where the abuse of crew goes unrecorded and unpunished, according to a new report.

Image Source: The Maritime Executive

The overlapping responsibilities of flag states, operators, managers and owners means some issues are not being addressed with crew suffering the consequences, said the UK-based charity Human Rights at Sea (HRAS).

HRAS said the world’s 1.6m commercial seafarers face problems with modern slavery, poor working conditions, inadequate health and safety practices, in addition to an inability to hold employers to account if anything goes wrong.

The report All at Sea? highlighted the case of Hope Hicks, a US Merchant Marine Academy cadet who claimed she had been raped while on board a ship operated by Maersk Line Ltd (MLL).

The maritime sector has fallen behind the garment, agriculture and finance industries in putting measures in place to ensure basic rights are observed in the workplace, according to HRAS.

The issue has been highlighted by the plight of seafarers during the Covid-19 pandemic who were stranded at sea for long periods because of the difficulties of crew changes, late payments of wages and a historically high-levels of seafarer abandonment, said the report.

Data compiled by the digital platform RightShip suggested that that 3,623 seafarers remained abandoned on more than 200 vessels worldwide at the end of May this year. Reference

Greening shipping through data

26 Oct 2022
While COP 27 and MEPC offer world leaders platforms to navigate towards a greener future, vessel tracking technology presents a more immediate and cost-effective sustainability solution.

Image Source: Seatrade Maritime News

Decarbonisation is a huge challenge for the maritime sector, which is currently navigating rising costs, fuel uncertainty, geopolitical conflict, labour shortages and much more. Uncertainty about the future fuels and emissions landscape, both in terms of bunkering infrastructure and fleet composition, has resulted in a chicken and egg situation. Operators are reluctant to commit to a specific fuel for fear of operating and bunkering issues, while ports and bunker suppliers are opposed to investing in infrastructure that may become obsolete if a different fuel dominates the market in the future.

Resolving the disconnect requires support from governments that will guide political will and investments as well as the shipping industry, which must express a consensus about the shape of the future. The end of this year presents important opportunities for alignment on both fronts with COP 27 being held in Sharm El Sheikh from 6-18th November and the International Maritime Organizations’ Marine Environment Protection Committee gathering online and in London from 12-16th December.

While the conversations that take place in both locations will determine our future, there can be no doubt that maritime must also take immediate action to meet pre-agreed emission targets by 2050 – and to comply with incoming regulations such as the IMO’s Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) and the Energy Efficiency eXisting ship Index (EEXI). Meeting these targets will require benchmarking of the existing fleet so that progress can be measured.

ORBCOMM vice president and general manager for container and port solutions Al Tama believes that ship owners must have a clear short-term and long-term approach with the former being driven by data.

Remote vessel tracking presents an ideal way to gather information about individual ships and the global fleet in order to benchmark emissions. By helping to ensure that shipping lines are efficient, shipping tracking can reduce the operator’s carbon footprint. By constantly knowing where their ships are located, operators can send the closest vessel to an identified destination, cutting unnecessary travel and producing a smaller carbon footprint. This lowers both greenhouse emissions and fuel spending while boosting fleet productivity. Reference

Altair and Mazagon Dock to Collaborate in Multiple Simulation Areas

25 Oct 2022
Altair, a global leader in computational science and artificial intelligence (AI), has signed an agreement with Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd. (MDL) to collaborate in multiple simulation areas. In this collaboration, MDL will utilize Altair solutions for simulation-driven design and validation, structural fidelity calculations, shock and vibration assessments, hydrodynamic loading, electromagnetic simulation, and more.

Image courtesy of Altair. Image Source:

The collaboration agreement strengthens the relationship between the two companies, as MDL already utilizes various Altair solutions to develop its robust ship design and engineering offerings. Altair solutions are used extensively in the marine and maritime industries. Altair helps naval architects address complex engineering challenges and mitigate environmental risks associated with seagoing loads including structural, hydro, dynamic, thermal, and fatigue, as well as above surface and underwater weapon threats for the military and homeland security.

Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd. (MDL), Mumbai, an ISO 9001: 2015 company and one of the leading shipbuilding yards in India. Over the years, MDL has earned a reputation for quality work and established a tradition of skilled and resourceful service to the shipping world in general and the Indian Navy and Coast Guard.

Altair is a global leader in computational science and artificial intelligence (AI) that provides software and cloud solutions in simulation, high-performance computing (HPC), data analytics, and AI.  Reference

Survey Finds “Unacceptable” Discrimination Against Female Seafarers

25 Oct 2022
WISTA International has released the results of a large-scale online survey on the prevalence of gender-based discrimination and harassment at sea, and the results are sobering.

Out of the 1,128 female seafarers who responded, 60 percent reported encountering gender-based discrimination aboard their vessels, and 66 percent reported witnessing harassment. This is higher than oft-cited statistics for women in shoreside roles; past studies indicate that the self-reported rate for workplace gender discrimination in the United States runs at about 40 percent. 

25 percent of the survey respondents said that they had personally encountered onboard harassment, like overly familiar remarks or an invitation to a crewmember’s cabin. Another 25 percent reported indecent remarks, body shaming and uncomfortable persuasion. About 90 percent of these interactions were with male seafarers.

Despite near-universal company policies banning harassment on board (97 percent), only a small minority of the respondents said that they had reported incidents to their companies, either through a hotline or through their direct superior. 

The survey drew the overwhelming majority of its data (90 percent) from women who serve aboard cruise ships, reflecting the high level of concentration of female seafarers within the cruise sector.  Reference

Covid outbreak on cruise ship off Australia

25 Oct 2022
An outbreak of Covid-19 has occurred on the first major cruise ship to visit Western Australia in more than two years.

The Coral Princess arriving into Melbourne on September 15, 2022 in Melbourne, Australia. Princess Cruises’ Coral Princess is the first cruise liner to sail into Melbourne after more than two years. Image Source:

Around 100 passengers and crew have tested positive on the Coral Princess, reports

The ship, which has a capacity of around 2000, had just visited the town of Broome where local businesses welcomed its return. It is believed that there are 1900 passengers on board.

A Western Australia Health spokesperson confirmed the outbreak: “WA Health has been advised of passengers and crew testing positive to Covid-19, and this evolving situation is being managed by the vessel operator according to its Covid-19 plan.

A spokesperson for Princess Cruises said the outbreak was being managed “effectively” and that the ship would continue on its itinerary. Reference

Successful Completion of the First Ammonia Test Delivery

24 Oct 2022
The first low-carbon ammonia test shipment from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to Germany was successfully completed with its arrival at multi-metal manufacturer Aurubis. As a leading European logistics group with strong ambitions to drive forward decarbonisation, Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG (HHLA) handled the test cargo at the climate-neutral Container Terminal Altenwerder in Hamburg.

Image Source: The Maritime Executive

This pilot delivery sets an important milestone for the medium-term imports of green hydrogen for Germany and Europe. Torben Seebold, Member of the Executive Board of HHLA, on the first test delivery said that HHLA are very proud to be part of the joint, successful development of a secure supply chain for hydrogen carriers from the United Arab Emirates to Germany. 

Two years ago HHLA launched the project HHLA Hydrogen Network to identify the potential of hydrogen in its own business segments and beyond. Hydrogen as an energy carrier can contribute significantly to the decarbonisation of logistics. As a leading European logistics group, HHLA is therefore positioning itself in the area of importing and distributing hydrogen.  Reference

How Paradip Port is Set for Significant Role in India’s Maritime Connectivity

24 Oct 2022
Paradip port, which is located in the Jagatsinghpur district of coastal Odisha, is poised to play a significant role in India’s maritime connectivity with South East Asia cementing the space for trans-regional free trade architecture.

Image Source:

In this ambitious corridor, as part of the Sagarmala project (Garlands of the sea), the Government of India intends to augment port-led industrialisation by linking the Kalinga coastal zone with a host of industrial and maritime clusters. As a result, Paradip port on the east coast undergoes massive structural and logistical revamping.

Shifting the gravity of attention to Paradip, it is placed in the middle between Kolkata port (210 nautical miles) and Visakhapatnam port (260 nautical miles).

The Kalinga Coastal Economic Zone links Paradip with Dhamra port covering the coastal districts such as Puri, Jagatsinghpur, Cuttack, Kendrapara, Jajpur, and Bhadrak to build industrial clusters and smart cities.

Coastal circuit formation and cruise tourism are some of the potential areas which are planned to be developed to give a fillip to coastal tourism.

Moving ahead, inter-port connectivity between the Kolkata Port and Paradip port may serve the purpose of reaching the Sittwe port and thereafter to Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, and also to India’s Northeastern region involving multimodal operations. Its proximity to the mining states such as Odisha, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh makes it all the more important to conduct import-export activities.  Reference

Note: All above news items compiled in this digest should be considered as news in brief. For detailed news, please refer to reference link, mentioned with each item.

Share it now